Saturday, June 6, 2020
Corporate Governance Accountability (Research Paper Sample) Content: Corporate Governance Accountability Name: Institution: Course: Date: Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Part A: Corporate social reporting: a tool to discharge corporate accountability or to enhance managerial capture? PAGEREF _Toc378026344 \h 31.0.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc378026345 \h 31.1.Legitimacy theory on corporate social reporting PAGEREF _Toc378026346 \h 31.2.The stakeholder theory of social accounting PAGEREF _Toc378026347 \h 51.3.The Business Case Perspective of CSR PAGEREF _Toc378026348 \h 61.4.Managerial Capture in CSR PAGEREF _Toc378026349 \h 81.5.Institutional theory on social reporting PAGEREF _Toc378026350 \h 10Part B: Sustainability Reporting and Assurance Statement PAGEREF _Toc378026351 \h 11i.The different engagement techniques and their usefulness PAGEREF _Toc378026352 \h 12ii.How British American Tobacco has assured its sustainability/social reports and the quality of assurance PAGEREF _Toc378026353 \h 142.0.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc378026354 \h 153.0.Reference List PAGEREF _Toc378026355 \h 17 Part A: Corporate social reporting: a tool to discharge corporate accountability or to enhance managerial capture? 1 Introduction Business organizations have a societal role that has undergone tremendous change over the years (Deegan Unerman, 2010. From the catchphrase that businesses have no social obligations to realizing and understanding the critical value of being responsible socially, corporate social reporting has come a long way. Deegan, Rankin, Tobin, (2002) describe CSR as a corporate self-regulated process incorporated into the business model, in which an organization monitors and sees to it that it is in continuous compliance with the essence of social and environmental norms. Presently, big companies in the US, Europe, and Australia are voluntarily publishing distinct sustainability reports alongside the mandatory financial reports (Cooper Owen, 2007). British American Tobacco is a good example of such companies. Building on the applicable social accounting constructs and related studies, this paper assesses whether CSR is used astool for discharging corporate accountability or enhancing manager ial capture. 1 Legitimacy theory on corporate social reporting In many countries, corporate social reporting remains a voluntary activity while in few others such as the Netherlands and Denmark regulations have been set requiring business organizations to make public disclosures on social and environmental issues (Cooper Owen, 2007). Still, despite the voluntary element, the trend towards social disclosure is growing. An important question therefore is why many organizations are choosing to report on environment and social issues in the absence of any regulations. The legitimacy theory is one of the strongest possible theoretical explanations. The legitimacy theory points out that corporate social disclosure responds to environmental factors whether political, social, or economical, and that such disclosure helps in legitimizing actions (Deegan Unerman, 2011). In such a case, it strongly appears to be a way through which organizations attempt to be accountable for their actions to various stakeholders. The basis of the theory is the conception that businesses operate in the society through a social contract established with its stakeholders (Tozer Hamilton, 2007). Such is a contract in which an economic organization agrees to perform actions that are socially desirable in exchange for stakeholders' approval of the business's objectives as well as its survival. The legitimacy theory therefore views CSR as the understanding by a business organization of the need to disclose adequate social information to its stakeholders as prove of being an ideal corporate member of the society. According to Gray (2001) when a business is continuously accountable to its stakeholders, it enhances its legitimacy. This view concurs with Frost (2007) who sees legitimacy as a condition which becomes present when the value system of an entity corresponds to the value system of the wider social system in which the organization is part. This means that the organization's legitimacy is threatened when there is actual or possible disparity between the organizational and societal value systems (Deegan Unerman, 2011). An organization will therefore inevitably turn to CSR as a way of discharging corporate accountability for its activities and thus enhance its legitimacy. Deegan (2006) sees the motivation of organizations to disclose or report information regarding their CSR activities as a way of accounting for the organization's responsibility. Here, enhancing the organization's legitimacy is seen as an important factor. Essentially, an organization will use CSR as communication tool educate or manipulate the public perceptions regarding the actions of the organization. A mail survey by Frost and Wilmhurst (2000) investigated the motives among various Australian companies for corporate social reporting. In the survey, the respondents were mainly company CFOs who were asked to rate the significance of 11 distinct CSR motivating factors. The results provided a limited level of support for the motivation to enhance legitimacy through accountability to stakeholders. Whereas limited support for such accountability was established in this particular research, Deegan, Rankin, and Tobin (2002) establish robust support for the same. In their investigation of BHP, they found strong backing for their hypothesis that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"the extent of environmental and social performance attributes is linked to the level of the company's social corporate disclosures'. They established that CSR was important for the company's legitimacy as it was a way of accounting for its social issues to stakeholders. The studies on the legitimacy theory therefore strongly, though variably, view CSR as way of honoring an organization's corporate responsibility. 2 The stakeholder theory of social accounting The stakeholder perspective extends the arguments of legitimacy theory, and explicitly regards corporate social reporting as a tool for effectively dealing with a company's stakeholders. Adams, (2004) points to the inclusivity element of the theory that entails the incorporation of the needs and aspirations all the groups of stakeholders at every stage of the auditing and accounting process in order to improve accountability. Gray (2001) also notes that the basic objective of CSR is to discharge accountability to all stakeholder groups. Such accountability involves identifying the responsibilities of the company and then communicating the information about the responsibilities to everyone who needs and has the right to the information (Cooper Owen, 2007). In interacting with various stakeholder groups, an organization needs follow a systematic approach that ensures CSR meets the needs of the different stakeholders. According to Unerman, Bebbington, and O'Dwyer (2010), a company should identify the broad stakeholder groups that impacted by the organization or impact the organization. Each stakeholder group is then subdivided in pertinent subgroups, for instance, different types of NGOs. The next step entails the prioritization of the stakeholder groups to form the foundation of a social account for which the information should be provided to provide accountability (Gray, Owen Adams, 1996). Gray's position is therefore strong in its regard of CSR as a tool for discharging corporate accountability. According to Gray (2001) different stakeholder groups require varying types of information and that such information is what defines the fundamental aspects of the relationship between the organization and its stakeholders. The understanding that the different stakeholder groups need varying types of information is important for ensuring that all the groups are getting fair treatment by the organization. In apparent support of Gray's view, Deegan (2006) points to the normative or moral (ethical) branch of the stakeholder theory which suggests that all the different stakeholder groups possess the right to fair treatment by their organization of interest. In other words, all stakeholders deserve accountability from the organization. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"Fair treatment' in this regard entails an organization communicating to the various stakeholders the information that specifically addresses their interest or needs (Unerman, Bebbington, O'Dwyer, 2010). In doing so, an organization better po sitioned to offer accountability to its customers through CSR. 3 The Business Case Perspective of CSR Whereas the position of stakeholder and legitimacy theories is that business embrace CSR for accountability to stakeholders (Deegan 2006; Gray, 2001) the business case construct opposes offers another motive which has prevailed and become well established in academic literature (Kolk, 2005). Various scholars have however developed views, based on this perspective, that sharply conflict. The general agreement among most of the scholars who have informed this perspective is that businesses focus on CSR because reporting on environmental and social issues helps them to achieve economic success in the long-term. A rather strict articulation of the motive in this perspective is that the basic responsibility of a business organization is to make profits within the confines of law, and that social issues should be addressed by other organizations (Carroll Shabana, 2011). This means that companies are not motivated by accountability stakeholders on social matters and will only commit to reporting on social activities if the bring profits to the company; and such reporting must conform to the company's core business. All in all, the element of accountability is still strongly present, though a business is only willing to be accountable to social a...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Reasons for the Limited Effects of the International Convention on the Arrest of Ships - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1597 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Did you like this example? Reasons for the Limited Effects of the International Convention on the Arrest of Ships Table of Contents Introduction History of Ship Arrests and Various Maritime Conventions Key Features of International Convention on the Arrest of Ships Reasons for limited effect of the Maritime convention Contradiction with RTAÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Lack of clear definition Constantly changing Amendments Recommendations for Effective Implementations Introduction News about international ships getting arrested for crossing borders come up nearly every day. Though maritime technology is at its peak, acts of law violation creating severe diplomatic tension are in constant increase. The essay explores some important legal issues associated with the maritime regulatory development. It starts with the procedure of arrest of ships in historical times and analyzes the ratification status of the main maritime conventions of our time. It examines in detail the International convention on Arrest of ships adopted at Geneva and compares the practical difficulties encountered by the ships in following the rules and regulations of the convention. History of Ship Arrests and Various Maritime Conventions Each country has different laws and regulation when it comes to ship arrest. The USA and the Peoples Republic of China are considered as the main players in the industry as nearly 42% of the all imports in world are done by the USA. O ver 100 million containers filled with goods are exported from China alone to the US annually. The ship arrests laws of each country is closely linked with its history. Ships originally traded valuable goods like silk, spices and gold in ancient times. Chinese ships still dominated the ocean those days as fleets of ships carrying silk and other valuable set sail worldwide to sell their goods. Ships were confiscate those days by looters. It is said South Indian kings and the African inhabitants provided patrol forces to protect the ships crossing their sea line in exchange of gold, perhaps the first duty tax collection. These people set the basic maritime rules, stressing on proper ratification of every ship passing by. Ship arrests in the medieval age changed face with constant military conquests. Ships with ammunitions were often arrested fearing military attack. Trading ships carrying weapons for protection were often mistaken for military ships and attacked brutally. Hence, ch anges were made in the appearance of military and trading ships and flags were hoisted to notify what the ship carried. The current day national policy of the government with the neighboring countries affects the admiral jurisdiction taken by the maritime courts. In England an international ship can be arrested if there is a way to initiate the in rem action against it. The English strictly implements several laws drawn during the 1952 International Arrest convention. The Administration of Justice Act 1956 pointed out several changes in the convention with the view of serving practical purposes. But, England implements the old practices still based upon familiarity and ease of use. The US laws are mostly based on the UK maritime conventions. Scottish laws are also based on the UK laws predominantly. Arrest of ships is an issue of major importance to the trading community in the contemporary world as nearly 48% of the total goods involved in world trade are transported through sea. From machineries to perishable items and things ordered online, millions of items are loaded on huge containers everyday and imported or exported through sea. Crossing borders is a constant procedure for both the ships carrying day to day goods and the ones carrying ammunition. But, sadly there is no regularized global policy allowing secure transport of ships across the sea as each country has its own rules and regulations regarding marine transport. The 1952 Arrest Convention was the first global initiative to set common standard for all countries on how to treat the trading ships entering their territory. Here is a list of the some of the main laws which were drafted over time to regulate the arrest of ships since 1952. Among these various conventions, the 1999 International Convention on the Arrest of Ships drafted in Geneva is the most influential and recent one. The 1999 Arrest Convention is the most modern international regime that governs the procedure of arrest of ships in this decade. Compared to the 1952 Arrest convention, it presents a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âwider definition of arrest and wider scope of applicationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (UNCTAD, 2011). The list of claims in the 1952 Arrest convention has been extended to suit the modern needs. However this area of the law is still considered to be developing in the conventions and new amendments are made regularly to the claims. The convention addresses the discrimination between the Regional Trade Facilitation or RTA effectively through various progressive moves. Key Features of the International Convention on Arrest of Ships The convention drafted on March 12, 1999 in Geneva has 17 articles starting with definitions for key terms like Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âArrestÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âClaimantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhypothequeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . It clearly explains what a Maritime Claim means in the first 22 points addressing every issue from the dispute between the owners of the ship to due charges to be paid in ports and docks. The various sub sections in the convention define who has the power to arrest the ship and the how right should be exercised legally. The convention gives ample importance to RTAÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s. Since, the key focus for both the regional governments as well as the international ship operators is to earn profit the convention aims in minimizing the discrepancies arising out of following local laws pertained to each country. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAdopting a coherent approach to the negotiation and implementation of the new or existing regional and multilateral trade facilitation commitments by countries is critical in this respectÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã says a review of the convention (UNCTAD, 2011). Reasons for limited effect of the Maritime convention Contradiction with RTAÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s There are several contradictions between the jurisdictional rules and arrest conventions in nearly every country. The main objective of the co nvention is to reduce the complexity of the formalities involved in the international trade. If the multiple RTA rules interfere with, all crucial rules, there is no point in following an international protocol. Productive measures to minimize the RTA rules contradicting with the international convention should be taken. Discrimination for the ships of certain country trading ships should be avoided. The contract rules should apply equally to all the trading partners. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âApply preferential trade facilitation measures to all trading partnersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã says the convention. The policymaking of the RTA should be modified in such a way it does not affect the trade relations with the particular countries. Since, each country in the world has several disputes with its immediate neighbors rather than major opponents this measure is not practically applicable when it comes to framing national policies. Lack of clear definition Arrest means ceasing a ship in a particul ar territory. But, the ship is free to more around as long as it does not enter a particular place. In case of mortgage or other ownership issues, RTA laws are used to protect the ships. Though there are many definitions regarding all maritime claim terms, many of them are interpreted in multiple ways by the lawyers to make the case move favorable for their clients. Clear definitions regarding key terms should be drawn to ensure they are not misused by the authorities in different countries. Constantly changing Amendments Article 12 and 13 of the convention clearly mentions if any procedure in the convention is in violation with the states laws, the state can notify it to the committee and get it changed before acceptance. States with more than one system of law can mention how far the rules are applicable in a particular area. Nearly 474 RTAÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s were presented to the WTO requesting state ratification on issues like goods and services security and duty amount re gulations. The points in nearly 351 RTAÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s considered reasonable and added in the convention (UNCTAD, 2011). Such constant amendments and failure to notify them properly to all the related concerns only cause chaos. Free trade rules often does not recognize RTAÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s role in interfering with the international property rights and government procurement. But, lack of communication and confusion in following the ever changing protocols make many officials stick to RTAÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s rather than the rules of the international convention. Recommendation for Effective Implementation Gaining international co-operation on the key laws and ensuring proper communication across the world regarding the standard set of procedures is a must. Amendments in the convention should be made only annually which will make it easy for the officials to follow the changes and keep themselves updated. Clear and well defined terminology which prevents all forms of misuse on the judicial side should be framed. Effective steps to route ships from problematic neighbors in an alternate path should also be taken. Proper measures to ensure the laws are followed strictly will bring the issue to an end. The countries which sign the convention should be made to agree to the key strategies and agendas in the convention rather than bringing up their own RTA rules constantly. Conclusion The International Convention on the arrest of ships has little or no effect in solving maritime claims owing to their sophisticated procedures and easily foreseeable laws. Framed with the good intention of easing and securing the marine transport, the convention had played a significant role in regularizing various maritime claims. It will continue to do so if certain steps are taken to implement the strategies stated in the convention by all the nations in the world. References DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Reasons for the Limited Effects of the International Convention on the Arrest of Ships" essay for you Create order International Convention on the Arrest of Ships (1999) lt;https://www.admiraltylawguide.com/conven/arrest1999.htmlgt;accessed 8th March 2014 Review of Maritime Transport 2011, Report by the UNCTAD secretariat (United Nations, 2011) 129
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The documentary goes through the role the father playÃ¢â¬â¢s in every stage of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s relationshipÃ¢â¬â¢s begins before birth; children can recognize the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice while she is pregnant but when the father speaks the child reacts more. The documentary also talks about body changes in the father soon after getting his partner pregnant. There is a hormonal change in the father, which causes physical changes. Dr. Brennan did research that showed 55% of the men he conducted his research on had symptoms that most associate with pregnant women. That is known as a couvade syndrome which happens with the increase of prolactin. Experiment conducted showed that prolactin increases after a 15 minute period of a father holding his babyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Once a toddler, the physical play with child and father can help their children to learn. They learn how to push their limits and take risks with specific physical play. According to th e documentary, father plays a more important role than mothers in language development because they talk to their children like adults and not with Ã¢â¬Å"baby talkÃ¢â¬ . In the documentary, kids are told to describe what their parents do for them and they draw their father as the parent they play with and their mother cleaning and cooking for them. The dad is seen as the entertainer and the mother as the nurturer. Single fathers are also capable to take care as single mothers are but are done very differently. Some of those differences from single mothers are that single father have more emphasis to teach their children to be more independent. Single fathers create more of a daily routine in contrast to single mothers. Hardest role for the father to play is when their children become teenagers. Once their child becomes a teenager they are no longer the entertainers but the disciplinarian. The documentary states that fathers are more effective at controlling teenager behavior whe n they explain the rules rather than punish them, which is done better by fathers rather than mothers. In the documentary two different families are brought in for an experiment to show the difference of discipline with mother and father. The experiment shows that mothers
Question: Discuss about the Operations Management Of KFC Australia. Answer: Introduction In any business organisationoperations management deals with the functions by which the company runs the business on a daily basis. Creating efficiency among the employees to improve the process of daily operations is the primary role of the operations management department. This is essential as the people working in the organisation who perform the daily tasks should be monitored and managed in order to make sure that their efforts are providing the organisation a way to achieve the objectives.Operationsmanagement is responsible for using the resources that are available at the disposal of the company and generate products and services. The approach attempts to balance the costs with revenue to achieve the highest net operating profit of the company.Supply chain and logistic play an important role in the daily operations of the business as inventory of the business will ensure the process of output (Jacobs et al. 2013).Inventory management through supply chain is an important functi on of the operations management, which is achieved with the help of analysis of the local and international trends, requirements of the customers and the available resources for production.The internal resources of the organisation directly impact the quality of the product and services as well as the process by which the company can improve the operations of the business. Operations management can be described as the portion where business process, finance and technology meet (Jacobs et al. 2013). In order to undertake the analysis of this assignment the organisation that has been taken to study is KFC Australia. Overview of the company Kentucky fried chicken or KFC is an American multinational fast food chain of restaurants which has gained popularity in the food and beverage industry due to the quality, availability and the strategic management decisions that is followed by the company. The organisation holds a significant position in the market and has stores in almost 20,000 locations internationally the company operates in approximately 123 countries (Kfc.com.au 2018). Yum! Brands is the parent organisation. Established in 1930, the company has come a long way in the business operations keeping up with the quality of the product and meeting the requirements of the consumers (Kfc.com.au 2018). Components of operations management in KFC Operations management plays a very important role in a business model like KFC, in order to ensure an efficient performance the company employs and integrates the operation process. With the help of constant management control and co-ordination operations the company drives to achieve the objectives. Product evaluation, product distribution, advertising and promotion, sales and service and product development are some of the activities of the operations management in the company (Davis et al. 2018). The objective of the operations management of the company is to improve balanced food choices for the organisation is committed to reducing sodium and sugar as well as trans-saturated fats to less than 0.5% without compromising on taste or quality of the products (Brown and Bessant 2013). The company is driven by the quality of the products, timeliness of the commitment and requirements of the customers and in order to deliver all of this operations management plays an important role the components of operations management in the organisation are as follows: Procurement process To deal with the changing and diverse menu that the company offers the raw materials are essential part of the operations process. The raw materials that the company uses can be divided in to two sections edible raw materials and non-edible raw materials. Furthermore, this can be divided into simpler sections in edible raw material section the company has dry items and wet items. The company has its own warehouse in the region of operation, in order to keep the materials fresh. In the warehouse the perishable items are kept in order to ensure that there is continuous supplies of resources for the branch to operate. These include the burger bun, chicken, spice mix, vegetables, oil among others (Chen et al. 2015). The non-perishable material that is used is mostly for packing purposes. The materials are gathered from the vendors who are third parties and then these are stocked in the warehouse. From the warehouse these materials are sent to the branches as per the order that has been placed by the manager based on the forecast of the demand of the items. This process is ideally done thrice a week and the transportation and the management is looked after by the employees of KFC. The warehouses of KFC are placed according to the region of operation in Australia so that the processes of delivery to the branches are quick in order to retain the freshness and the quality of the product (Mok et al. 2013).The company follows a DRP approach which enables them to control the inventory fluctuations and also determine the time-phased inventory necessities. Some of the prerequisites of being the supplier of the core ingredient of the menu chicken are that the supplier has to be a member of the Australian Chicken Meat Federation and has to diligently obey the Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals, Domestic Poultry(Csr.kfc.com.au 2018). The company ensures that 85 percent of the raw materials that are used in the operations of the output of the products and services are sourced from Australia. Inghams, Steggles and Golden Farms are some of the key suppliers in the region. 97 percent of the chicken that is used by the restaurants are non-frozen and are fresh which helps in retaining the quality of the product (Csr.kfc.com.au 2018). The flour, burger buns and tortillas is also supplied by local vendors such as George Weston Foods, Manildra and Allied Mills (Csr.kfc.com.au 2018). The potato that is used is the process is supplied from Tasmania and Victoria. On the other hand, lettuce and tomatoes are sourced from the east and west coasts of the country. The organisation states that every week the company uses around 32 tonnes of lettuce, 16 tonnes of tomatoes, 70 tonnes of fresh burger buns and 16 tonnes of fresh dinner rolls in the restaurants throughout Australia (Csr.kfc.com.au 2018). Product and service There are a number of employees associated with one branch of KFC restaurant. Every branch has a manager and there are people who are responsible for taking the orders making the orders, serving the orders and dealing with the issues of the customers. The operation of a branch in Australia is based on the menu that is being served in the restaurant. The manager of the branch is responsible for coordinating with the distribution and the warehouse department. The finance and the management of each branch is also dealt by the manager (Brandenburg et al. 2014). Customer service The role of operations management in the company in the customer service sector is to enhance the process and develop the operations as is possible with the given resources. Maintaining the quality of the product the service that is offered has to be consistently good in order to achieve the objective of the business. The operations management also analyses the demand trend of the products and innovates the menu accordingly. The company invests in training the employees to improve their skills and speed. The operations management also develops innovative ideas every year 40 on average. The above stated components are some of the most important aspects of the business strategic management decisions and policies of the company are built on the basis of these operations. Decision making in operations The DRP (Distribution resource planning)processes have some of the following aspects: the main demand planning, inventory files, supply the resource files; procurement plans, distribution plans (Hoch and Dulebohn 2013). Planning: in order to meet the targets and achieve the objects of the company the management has to look out for scope of development and changes, this requires planning. In KFC operations planning play an important role in strategically locating a place to build a restaurant, apart from that planning of the course of the operation for a week in case there is pressure and excessive demand. The company uses Total quality management approaches in the daily operations of the business to ensure the best quality and best service. Following the principle of continual improvement recommended by Schonberger planning is essential in every step of operations from distribution to procurement to customer service among others. Another principle of operation management is focus, it is one of the major aspects in the planning process, and the company has to align the objectives along with the operations process so that the effort is concentrated and organized in a streamline. KFC management ensures that every operational function of the organisation is structured and is executedefficiently (Schonberger and Brown 2017). Scheduling: The process of distribution, procurement and the timeliness of the service to the customers are all based on the way the process is scheduled. There should be provisions made by the company in case there is an overflow of work to maintain the timeliness of the process. Distribution of the raw material is something that is scheduled by the branch managers according to the requirement of branch. The management of the company will ensure that there is a continuous flow of resources this brings to the principle of organisation of the resources which will help in scheduling the operations in an effective manner (Hoch and Dulebohn 2013). Inventory management:The inventories of the company are discussed above.The restaurant follows a First In First Out approach to manage the resources and the inventories as the company deals with the perishable items. This is the part of the Distribution resource planning approach that the company implements in order to ensure the process of Distribution and procurement are effectively implemented. The principles that are followed in this process are forecasts of the demand, the restaurant reports to branch distribution center on the basis of the demand forecasts, the distribution center procure the items from various suppliers in Australia that are mentioned above (Hoch and Dulebohn 2013). The role of operations management in the strategic management Strategic management is the process by which a business organisation forms the policies and the decisions of the business. Some of the basic functions of strategic management of a business is to formulate the goals and objectives of the organisation based on the business as well as the operations. This further helps in formulating the policies and decisions of the business. it is the way in which an organization manages the business organisation as well as the daily operations of the business. The responsibility of operations management is to effectively perform in order to reach the objectives that are created by the strategic management process. Strategic management ensures that every decision that the management takes is based on a rational reasoning and is backed up by sufficient data. Improvement of the efficiency, development of the effectiveness and increasing the flexibility of the operations are the major objective of the operations management of KFC. The foundation of strategic management can be described in the following functions: It helps in defining the business by documenting the vision and mission statements as well as states the values and principles The definition of the organisation is followed by the measurable objectives which is formulated by the values and principles of the company Organizing a plan in order to achieve the objectives with the help of marketing, administrative, financial as well as operational strategies Implementation of the strategies Evaluation of the impact of the strategies in achieving the objectives This indicates the role of operations management in strategic management, KFC is a multinational organisation that has set target market to meet. The company uses strategies like differentiation in order to achieve an advantage over the competitors any of the strategy the company formulates have to be back up by a strong operational function base. (Hoch and Dulebohn 2013). Conclusion It can be concluded from the above discussion that KFC Australia is very well structured in terms of its supply chain which includes distribution, procurement customer service. The company ensures that most of the products that are used as raw materials are sourced from Australia. The organisation is also a large contributor towards employment in the area of location in terms of suppliers, restaurant workers, branch managers, warehouse keepers etc. The operations management of the company ensures, quality, timeliness and loyalty among the customers. References: Brandenburg, M., Govindan, K., Sarkis, J. and Seuring, S., 2014. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management: Developments and directions. European Journal of Operational Research, 233(2), pp.299-312. Brown, S. and Bessant, J., 2013. Strategic operations management. Routledge. Chen, E., Flint, S., Perry, P., Perry, M. and Lau, R., 2015. Implementation of non-regulatory food safety management schemes in New Zealand: A survey of the food and beverage industry. Food control, 47, pp.569-576. Csr.kfc.com.au., 2018. We're fanatical about bringing the irresistable taste of KFC to our customers.. [online] csr.kfc.com.au. Available at: https://csr.kfc.com.au/food.html#food_4 [Accessed 5 Apr. 2018]. Davis, B., Lockwood, A., Alcott, P. and Pantelidis, I.S., 2018. Food and beverage management. Routledge. Hoch, J.E. and Dulebohn, J.H., 2013. Shared leadership in enterprise resource planning and human resource management system implementation. Human Resource Management Review, 23(1), pp.114-125. Jacobs, F.R., Chase, R.B. and Lummus, R.R., 2014. Operations and supply chain management (pp. 533-535). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Kfc.com.au., 2018. About us. [online] kfc.com.au. Available at: https://www.kfc.com.au/about-us [Accessed 5 Apr. 2018]. Mok, C., Sparks, B. and Kadampully, J., 2013. Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. Routledge. Schonberger, R.J. and Brown, K.A., 2017. Missing link in competitive manufacturing research and practice: Customer-responsive concurrent production. Journal of Operations Management, 49, pp.83-87.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Othello In Shakespeare's "Othello", Iago carefully and masterfully entraps Othello into believing that his wife, Desdemona, is having an affair with Cassio. He does this through a series of suggestions and hesitations that entice and implant images in Othello's head that lead him to his demise. But what is more important is, he gives Othello the motive to murder his own innocent Desdemona, satisfying Iago's immense appetite for revenge. The motive for Iago's devious plan is initially made clear in the first of Iago's three major soliloquies, in which he proclaims Othello has had an affair with his wife, Emila. "And it is thought abroad that 'twist my sheets he's done my office." The irony behind this line is that he then says, "I know not if't be true, but I, for mere suspicion in that kind, will do as if for surety." The impression this gave me after reading the complete text was that Iago is so exceedingly paranoid and insane that he will go as far as murdering, and deluding even a General into murdering his wife! Iago simultaneously conducts an equally devious plan to obtain Cassio's position as lieutenant, using Desdemona's prime weakness, her naivety. He disgraces Cassio by getting him drunk so that he strikes Roderigo. Othello then discharges Cassio when he says, "I love thee; But nevermore be officer of mine." How must poor Cassio have felt? To lose all he had worked for, burning gallons of mid-night oil, working up his reputation that any half-hearted human can tell he deserved. It was therefore understandable that he would fall to the mercy of Iago completely oblivious to the inevitable effects. Iago reveals his plan to the reader in his third soliloquy where he states, "His soul is so enfettered to her love, that she may make, unmake, do what she list, even as her appetite shall play the god with his weak function...And she for him pleads strongly to the Moor, I'll pour this pestilence into his ear, that she repeals him for her body's lust; And by how much she strives to do him good, s he shall undo her credit with the Moor." The first instance of this plan comes to life in the scene where Iago gets Cassio drunk, but the crafting only begins after Cassio is dismissed. With Cassio's reputation squandered - "O I have lost my reputation. I have lost the immortal part of myself, and what remains is bestial," Iago subsequently hooks in Cassio by taking advantage of the fact that he is in a state where he will do anything to get his job, position and reputation back. Iago tells him to seek Desdemona to get it all back, "Our general's wife is now the general...She is so free, so kind, so apt, so blessed a disposition, she holds is a vice in her goodness not to do more than she is requested." This tells me then Iago knows Desdemona is extremely naive. So Cassio asks Desdemona to ask Othello to take him in again. Iago implants images of Cassio and Desdemona having an affair in the mind of Othello, so the more Desdemona pleads with Othello, the more he believes Iago. And the more he refuses Desdemona because of this, the more Desdemona pleads with Othello, thereby creating an inescapable knot that never ceases to tighten around all three characters. But for any of this to work, Iago first had to carefully build up trust from all characters. Being a master of deception, this was not difficult. All the constant declarations of love spoken so openly and as though thoughtlessly throughout the play would be enough to fool anyone, "I think you think I love you...I protest, in the sincerity of love and honest kindness." And evidently he does deceive them thoughout the play in their words: Othello : Thy honesty and love doth mince this matter...My friend, thy husband, honest, honest Iago. Cassio : Good night honest Iago...I never knew a Florentine more kind and honest. All the love and honesty Iago falsely imposes upon Othello and Cassio easily conjure them never to doubt the possibility that he could ever set either of them up in such a profound and disgraceful manner. The irony of
Sunday, March 15, 2020
When Do College Acceptance Letters Arrive for Regular Decision For Early Decision or Early Action SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Applying to college is a confusing and stressful process, but waiting to hear back from the colleges you applied to can be just as anxiety-inducing. When do college acceptance letters arrive? In this guide, we explain when to expect to receive your college decision notifications. We also give you a chart of estimated college acceptance dates for 2019 and offer helpful tips on what to do as you wait for your college acceptance letters. When Do College Acceptance Letters Arrive, Generally? First off, when do college acceptance letters arrive, broadly speaking? While the answer to this question really depends on what colleges youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to, in general most decisions come out in the springtime, that is, in either March or early April. The latest you might hear back from a college will be the first week of April. This is because most schools require decisions from applicants on where they want to attend by May 1. Some colleges work together to release their decisions at the same time. The Ivy League, which is composed of eight highly prestigious colleges, releases its decisions on "Ivy Day," a specific day at the end of March (note that the exact date changes each year). But what if you applied to a college early action or early decision? In these cases, since applications are due earlier (usually in November), you can expect an earlier decision notification as well- usually around December. Some schools offer secondary early decision plans called Early Decision II for which applications are due a little bit later, usually in January. For these plans, decisions should come out around February. Here is a chart showing the general trends of when college acceptance letters come out: Application Deadline Estimated Decision Notification Date November (Early Action/Early Decision I) Mid- or late December January (Early Decision II) February December, January, or February (Regular Decision) March or early April These days, most college acceptance letters will arrive as either an email or application status update on a collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s own application portal. Afterward, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll usually receive a hard copy of your acceptance letter in the mail and further updates via email or mail. An Aside: What If YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Waitlisted? Sometimes, instead of getting a college acceptance letter or rejection, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get a letter stating that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been waitlisted. This means that the college is still considering you for admission depending on how many admitted applicants choose to enroll. As a result, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to decide (typically by May 1) whether you want to stay on the waitlist to see if you get off it, or take yourself off the waitlist, thereby eliminating your chances of getting in. If you decide to stay on the waitlist, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get a college decision notification until possibly as late as August, right before the school year starts. When you hear back ultimately depends on the school and how quickly it's able to fill up its new freshman class. College Acceptance Dates 2019 We have a general understanding of when college acceptance letters arrive. But when do college decisions come out in 2019? And how do these decision dates differ depending on the college? To answer these two questions, we put together an extensive list of popular schools and their reported or estimated college acceptance dates for 2019. All dates below represent the last day by which you should receive an admissions decision notification (unless otherwise noted); thus, itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible you could receive a decision earlier. All schools are listed alphabetically. School Early Action/Early Decision Regular Decision Amherst ED: Mid-December 2018 April 1-7, 2019 Boston College EA: December 20, 2018 Spring Freshmen: December 15, 2018 April 1, 2019 Boston University ED: December 15, 2018 ED 2: February 15, 2019 Late March to early April 2019 Brown ED: Mid-December 2018 March 28, 2019* Caltech EA: Mid-December 2018 Mid-March 2019 Carnegie Mellon ED: December 15, 2018 Early Admission (juniors only): April 15, 2019 April 15, 2019 Columbia ED: December 15, 2018 March 28, 2019* Cornell ED: Mid-December 2018 March 28, 2019* Dartmouth ED: Mid-December 2018 March 28, 2019* Duke ED: December 15, 2018 April 1, 2019 Emory ED I: December 15, 2018 ED II: February 15, 2019 Scholar Programs: March 1, 2019 April 1, 2019 Georgetown EA: December 15, 2018 April 1, 2019 Harvard EA: Mid-December 2018 March 28, 2019* Harvey Mudd ED I: December 15, 2018 ED II: February 15, 2019 April 1, 2019 Johns Hopkins ED: December 15, 2018 April 1, 2019 MIT EA: December 15, 2018 Mid-March 2019 Northwestern ED: Mid-December 2018 Late March 2019 Notre Dame EA: Mid-December 2018 Late March 2019 NYU ED I: December 15, 2018 ED II: February 15, 2019 April 1, 2019 Penn ED: Mid-December 2018 March 28, 2019* Pomona ED I: December 15, 2018 ED II: February 15, 2019 April 1, 2019 Princeton EA: Mid-December 2018 March 28, 2019* Rice ED: Mid-December 2018 April 1, 2019 Stanford EA: December 7, 2018 April 1, 2019 SUNY System ED: December 15, 2018 EA: January 1, 2019 Rolling Tufts ED I: Mid-December 2018 ED II: Mid-February 2019 April 1, 2019 UC System - Mar 1-31, 2019 UChicago EA: Mid-December 2018 ED I: Mid-December 2018 ED II: Mid-February 2019 Late March 2019 UMass Amherst EA: Starting mid-December 2018 Spring Applicants: Starting mid-December 2018 Starting early March 2019 UNC Chapel Hill EA: End of January 2019 End of March 2019 University of Florida - Mid-February 2019 University of Illinois EA: December 14, 2018 March 1, 2019 University of Michigan EA: December 24, 2018 Early April 2019 University of Rochester ED: December 15, 2018 April 1, 2019 University of Washington - March 1-15, 2019 USC Merit Scholarship Applicants: February 1, 2019 April 1, 2019 UT Austin Priority: February 1, 2019 March 1, 2019 UVA EA: End of January 2019 End of March 2019 Vanderbilt ED I: Mid-December 2018 ED II: Mid-February 2019 Late March 2019 Vassar ED I: Mid-December 2018 ED II: February 1, 2019 Late March 2019 Wake Forest ED: Rolling (as early as December 1, 2018) ED II: February 15, 2019 April 1, 2019 William Mary ED I: Early December 2018 ED II: Early February 2019 April 1, 2019 WUSTL ED: December 15, 2018 ED II: February 15, 2019 April 1, 2019 Yale EA: Mid-December 2018 March 28, 2019* *Estimated Ivy Day 2019 based on the patterns of previous years. Ivy Day is always at the end of March. See our guide to Ivy Day for more info about how we came up with this date. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. Waiting for College Acceptance Letters? 3 Tips for What to Do We've given you the general dates you can expect to receive your college admission decision. But what should you do in the meantime, after youÃ¢â¬â¢ve submitted all your applications and are waiting for decision notifications from colleges? Here are three essential tips to keep in mind during this time. #1: Focus on School One of the most important steps you can take is to focus on school and keep up your grades. Try your best not to let senioritis hit you, especially considering that most colleges will want to see your final transcripts before you get to campus- even after theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve admitted you. If you have any big dip in your grades senior year, a college could rescind your acceptance and reject you instead. Do not take any chances at this time! Continue to work hard, study for all the tests you have, and finish your homework on time. Keep making school a priority. Finally, continuing to do well in school is especially important if you plan to take any AP tests at the end of senior year. You want to keep up your studying so that you can earn a passing score on the tests youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking, hopefully earning you some college credit. Resist senioritis- keep up with your studies. #2: Apply for Financial Aid and Scholarships If you know youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need some help with money in order to attend college, these months of waiting for decisions to come out are an ideal time to shift your focus from college applications to FAFSA and scholarships. Applying for FAFSA makes you eligible to receive federal-, state-, and/or college-sponsored financial aid, including loans, grants, and work-study. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in winning free scholarship money, I'd advise you to do some research on any college scholarships you might be eligible for. These scholarships can be based on merit, such as your GPA and SAT/ACT scores, or financial need (or both). For more tips on how to find and apply for scholarships, check out our financial aid blog posts as well as our most popular scholarship and aid guides: Simple Guide: How to Apply for Financial Aid How to Find Scholarships for College: Expert Guide Top Scholarships for High School Seniors The Easiest Scholarships to Apply For Easy Scholarships to Win: How to Find and Apply The Complete List of Community Service Scholarships Amazing Full-Ride Scholarships You Can Win Complete List: Weird Scholarships You Can Win How to Get a Merit Scholarship: 6-Step Guide #3: Keep Tabs on Your Email and Application Status As you wait for college decisions to come out, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important that you routinely check your email (whichever email you put down for your college applications) and application status on the school's website. Some schools will only announce their decisions online through their application portals, some will email their decisions directly, and others will mail their decisions before sending out emails (this is becoming less common, though). Even if youÃ¢â¬â¢re not expecting to get a college decision anytime soon, try to keep tabs on your inbox and application status. This will help ensure youÃ¢â¬â¢re not missing any application materials and that the college isnÃ¢â¬â¢t trying to contact you about any last-minute problems with your application. Conclusion: When Do College Acceptance Letters Arrive? There are many answers to the question, "When do college decisions come out?" In general, most college decisions are released online by email or through an application portal in March or early April. If you applied early action or early decision, you can expect to hear back about your application status in December (or around February if you applied Early Decision II). The latest youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get a college acceptance letter is the first week of April, since most colleges require admitted applicants to submit their decisions about where they want to attend by May 1. If you get waitlisted at a college and choose to stay on the list, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t receive an official decision until possibly as late as August. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve submitted your applications and are waiting to hear back from colleges, be sure to take these three steps: Focus on school and continue to keep up your grades Apply for financial aid and scholarships, including FAFSA Keep tabs on your email and application status by routinely checking your inbox and the school's application status page As a final tip, stay positive- you never know where you're gonna get in! WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? What do college acceptance letters look like? Learn what a typical college acceptance letter says and how it looks with our in-depth guide. Got rejected from your top-choice school? Or scared of getting a rejection letter? Read our guide to get tips on how you can get through a college rejection and what you can do to improve your chances of getting in. The key to getting a college acceptance letter is having a great application. And the best way to ensure you have an impressive application is to know what looks good on it. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Friday, February 28, 2020
Motivations of War - Assignment Example The inefficient manner in which search operations for Osama-bin-laden was carried out showed that the American governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s interest lay elsewhere Ã¢â¬â namely the oil rich Iraq. The supposed presence of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the hands of the authoritarian Iraqi leaders Saddam Hussein is also proven to be a fabrication. Hence, the real motivation for the ongoing War on Terror operations seem to be to secure strategic material interests of the United States. In this process, the consequences for Iraq/Afghanistan civil society and its local economy is given scant regard. We could analyze the War on Terror operations within the framework of Ã¢â¬ËJust WarÃ¢â¬â¢ theory presented in the book Ã¢â¬Å"The Origins of War: Biological and Anthropological TheoriesÃ¢â¬ . Admittedly, the 9/11 terror strikes were heinous acts that cannot be justified under humanitarian principles. The 9/11 attacks were not an attack on the United States alone, but on all of human civilization. Continuing in this vein, one could argue that the threat posed by networks such as Al Qaeda is potentially as big as that of totalitarian rulers of the past, including Hitler and Stalin. Hence, it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be illogical to equate the ongoing military engagements of the United States to its major confrontations against Nazism and Stalinism. (Dowd, 2009) But those state apologists who make these claims do not make a serious effort to justify the War on Terror with the conditions laid down by the Just War theory, most likely because the case is a weak one. The invasion and occupation of Iraq is a breach of several of the Just War conditions, the most blatant of which is the numerous civilian fatalities that the war has caused. We also realize that the doctrine of Pre-emptive war, which was the cornerstone of the eight year term of George W. Bush, has several flaws in it.